Archive for fuzzy logic

pdNickname 3.0 released today

Version 2.0 users can get a free upgrade—see below

This new offering is loaded with almost 400,000 given names and nicknames. This represents virtually every first name found in the United States, and a quarter of the database is international names only found outside the United States.


The package is also replete with information about the languages associated with the names, their origin, and even has a popularity ranking for all first names appearing in the United States since 1915. It identifies more than 500 languages, dialects, and ethnic groups, from English and Spanish to Arabic and Swahili.

Key Features

  • Nicknames: the heart of the database is a huge collection of more than 200,000 nicknames and the names they are associated with, including short forms, abbreviations, diminutives, and even hypocoristics.
  • Name Variations: different ways of spelling given name and nicknames are identified based on linguistic and onomastic name tree research—some names can have more than a hundred variations.
  • Phonetic Matches: first names that are not true variations but sound similar or have close spellings are identified and rated on a 1 to 99 scale.
  • Languages: we have appended extensive demographic information about languages of usage.
  • Popularity: name popularity is ranked based of U.S. Census and U.S. Social Security records.
  • Special Origins: unique characteristics about the name origins are also provided, including their connections to religion, mythology, historical events, and literature.

A Pro edition even adds fuzzy logic which allows matching when names are entered with typographical errors.

Finally, students, teachers, scholars, and those researching family histories benefit as well because the software is highly recommended for study in genealogy, onomatology, anthroponymy, ethnology, linguistics, and related disciplines.

pdNickname 3.0 is available for immediate download from our website. It can be purchased as a standalone product (Pro, $495; Standard, $299), or as part of bundles now on sale, including pdSuite Names ($595) and pdSuite Master Collection ($695).




If you have pdNickname 2.0, for a limited time you can get a free upgrade to the new version. This applies to standalone versions and suites that contain the product. This offer expires June 30, 2016.


Fuzzy logic generation 2.0

Peacock Data introduced the next generation of their fuzzy logic technology with last month’s release of the California-based firm’s pdSurname Pro last name matching software.

Accordion to company spokesperson Barbara Adair, “pdSurname facilitates identifying last names that are true variations or phonetically similar, while the fuzzy logic technology in the enhanced Pro edition allows finding names even when there are misspellings or other typographical errors.”

“We introduced fuzzy logic with our pdNickname Pro and pdGender Pro software in late 2013, but the new fuzzy logic generation 2.0 is a great enhancement,” Barbara Adair exclaimed.

According to the company, most of the enhancements were achieved after they developed a giant library of more than 80,000 language rules based on hundreds of dialects from around the world. Barbara Adair said, “Many misspellings occur as transcribers enter the sounds they hear. The character sequences and the sounds they produce are different for each language and situation, such as before, after, or between certain vowels and consonants, so our substitutions are language-rule based.”

The company explained additionally that their algorithms go even further by considering both how a name may sound to someone who speaks English as well as how it may sound to someone who speaks Spanish, which is often different. Barbara Adair explained, “Take the letter-pair ‘SC’ as an example. Before the vowels ‘E’ or ‘I’ it is most likely to be misspelled by an English speaker as ‘SHE’ or ‘SHI’ while a Spanish speaker may hear ‘CHE’ or ‘CHI’ and sometimes ‘YE’ or ‘YI’.”

Company literature indicates the new fuzzy logic generation 2.0 technology has five layers:

1. Phonetic misspellings: such as GUALTIERREZ misspelled as GUALTIEREZ, AAGARD misspelled as OUGHGARD, and YOUNGMAN misspelled as YONGMAN.

2. Reversed letters: such as DIELEMAN misspelled as DEILEMAN and RODREGUEZ misspelled as RODREUGEZ. These algorithms look for errors due to reversed digraphs (two letter sequences that form one phoneme or distinct sound) which are a common typographical issue, such as “IE” substituted for “EI”.

3. Double letter misspellings: such as HUMBER misspelled as HUMBEER and ZWOLLE misspelled as ZWOLE. The most common typographical issues occur with the characters, in order of frequency, “SS”, “EE”, “TT”, “FF”, “LL”, “MM”, and “OO”.

4. Missed keystrokes: such as HUNTER misspelled as UNTER, missing the initial “H”, and TAMERON misspelled as TAMRON, missing the “E” in the middle.

5. Other typographical errors: which cover a variety of additional misspelling issues.

The pdSurname Pro software with the new fuzzy logic generation 2.0 technology is available for immediate download and can currently be purchased at a 25 percent introductory discount (sale, $371.25; regular, $495) or as part of bundles also on sale, pdSuite Names (sale, $645; regular $795) and pdSuite Master Collection (sale, $795; regular, $995).

For users of other Peacock Data name software, Barbara Adair noted, “pdNickname Pro and pdGender Pro will be updated with fuzzy logic generation 2.0 capabilities this fall, and the upgrades will be free for anyone owning the older version.”



What is fuzzy logic?

Both pdNickname 2.x and pdGender 2.x are fully compatible with fuzzy logic. In these products, fuzzy logic involves slight variations in first names and nicknames based on common typographical errors and stylized spelling methods. The Pro edition of these packages comes equipped with fuzzy logic out of the box. Fuzzy logic add-ons can be appended to both the Pro and Standard versions.

The following illustrates the fuzzy logic technology employed in pdNickname 2.x and pdGender 2.x. Further information specific for these packages can be reviewed in the product user documentation found on our support page.

Typographical errors

A large majority of fuzzy logic records involve common typographical errors. These algorithms look at frequently reversed digraphs (a pair of letters used to make one phoneme or distinct sound), phonetically transcribed digraphs, double letters typed as single letters, single letters that are doubled, and other common data entry issues. The most likely typographical errors are determined based on the number of letters, the characters involved, where they are located in the name, and other factors.

The following are examples of fuzzy logic based on common typographical errors:

Example 1 | Real: AL | Fuzzy: ALL | the “L” is repeated
Example 2 | Real: ROCCO | Fuzzy: ROCO | the second “C” is left out
Example 3 | Real: CHRISTOPHER | Fuzzy: CHRISTOFER | the “PH” digraph is phonetically transcribed as “F”
Example 4 | Real: SOPHIA | Fuzzy: SOHPIA | the “PH” digraph is reversed
Example 5 | Real: MARGARET | Fuzzy: MARGRAET | the second “AR” digraph is reversed

Stylized spellings

Other fuzzy logic records involve stylized spelling methods. These algorithms look at non-regular characters such as extended ANSI characters (ASCII values 128 to 255) as well as hyphens, apostrophes, and spaces.

A few of the possible extended characters are “Á” (A-acute), “Ö” (O-umlaut), and “Ñ” (N-tilde). In these cases, “Á” becomes “A” (A-regular), “Ö” becomes “O” (O-regular), “Ñ” becomes “N” (N-regular), and other extended characters are treated similarly.

The following are examples of fuzzy logic based on stylized spellings:

Example 6 | Real: BJÖRK | Fuzzy: BJORK | spelled with O-regular instead of O-umlaut
Example 7 | Real: NICOLÁS | Fuzzy: NICOLAS | spelled with A-regular instead of A-acute
Example 8 | Real: ‘ASHTORET | Fuzzy: ASHTORET | spelled without an apostrophe prefix
Example 9 | Real: ABD-AL-HAMID | Fuzzy: ABDALHAMID | spelled without hyphens delimiting the name parts
Example 10 | Real: JUAN MARÍA | Fuzzy: JUANMARIA | spelled without the space between the two parts and with I-regular instead of I-acute

Fuzzy logic add-on packs and upgrades

Peacock Data releases additional fuzzy logic records nearly every month for pdNickname 2.x and pdGender 2.x in the form of add-on packs which can easily and economically be appended to the main databases extending coverage of typographical errors and stylized spelling methods.

The fuzzy logic technology built into the main Pro product downloads is designed to pick up statistically the most likely mistakes and stylizations. Fuzzy Logic Add-on Packs are designed to pick up less common mistakes and stylizations.

Add-on packs include new algorithms and randomizers and are fully compatible with both the Pro and Standard editions of these packages.

Those licensing the Standard edition of either product can also purchase a Standard to Pro Upgrade Pack which includes all the fuzzy logic records from the Pro edition. Once a Standard version is upgraded, it will be the same as the Pro edition.

Review the documentation provided with the fuzzy logic add-on packs and upgrades for further instructions.

Anatomy of a database, part 2

The first part of this column, Anatomy of a database, part 1, discussed the first four years of research and development for Peacock Data’s new name database products:

pdNickname 2.0 is an advanced name and nickname file used by businesses and organizations to merge database records.

pdGender 2.0 is a gender coding database built on the same set of names. Users can match the data against the first names on their lists to establish male and female identification.

Both upgrades embrace a host of similar and compatible features including languages of origin and use for each name as well as fuzzy logic so information can be recognized even when lists have typographical errors or uncommon spellings. They were built during the same development cycle because both are extracted from the same master file.

To recap, the main product research and development began in early 2009 and was completed by late 2012. Then beta versions of the new products entered field testing in January 2013.

According to the company’s chief development coordinator Barbara Adair, “By 2013 early planning for version 3.0 of the products was already underway and included new fuzzy logic technology designed to work with typographical errors and uncommon spellings. Then development proceeded so well that in April 2013 the new technology was moved up to the version 2.0 cycle.”

Barbara pointed out, “The most complex fuzzy logic involves predicting likely misspellings or alterations. We look at numerous factors that may occur in the spelling of a name. Common examples are frequently reversed digraphs (a pair of letters used to make one phoneme or distinct sound), phonetic transcriptions, double letters typed as single letters, non-common characters, the number of letters in a name, where elements occur in a name, and hundreds of other possible factors.”

“A lot of research and field trials have gone into creating the fuzzy logic algorithms and their inclusion in our new products will substantially increase their power for users,” she added.

“The difference between a real name and a fuzzy version can be very slight and even difficult to notice at first glance,” Barbara said. “But they are different and can make a big difference in the success rate for businesses and organizations working with lists of names.”

Barbara notes, “A sizable majority of the Pro edition of both new products is built with fuzzy logic, but users not ready to dive into the new technology can purchase a Standard edition without fuzzy logic and easily add it later when they are ready by contacting the company for an upgrade.”

As for the easiest part of development, Barbara quickly cited the special precision gender coding information in pdGender filtered for languages, rare usage of unisex names by one gender, and other criteria.

By the time we had established the language information in the master file and flagged name types and rare unisex usages, it was actually quite easy to draw out the gender coding fields,” she said. “This is a testament to the quality of the information and how straightforward it is to work with.”

Barbara said, “The new products do have a learning curve but are ultimately very easy to exploit. It may take a few uses, but those working with the data will appreciate more and more how the information is organized and presented. A lot of thought and field testing has gone into this.”

One result of the decision to build pdNickname and pdGender from the same master file is the strong compatibility between the two offerings.

“While pdNickname and pdGender can easily be used separately, when used jointly they make excellent partners,” Barbara said. “They are comprised of the same set of names and can be linked together with little effort.”

On November 1, 2013, Peacock Data demonstrated the products in front of participants gathered in their Chatsworth, California offices. By this time the new releases were almost ready to go and the development team working under Barbara began tweaking the final layouts and authoring the product documentation.

pdNickname 2.0 Pro and pdGender 2.0 Pro were released on Monday, December 30, 2013 and the Standard editions (without fuzzy logic) made their debut two weeks later.

pdNickname 2.0 Pro has 3.9 million records, including 2.61 million with fuzzy logic, and is 2.9 GB counting all formats and files. pdNickname 2.0 Standard has 1.28 million records, does not have fuzzy logic, and is 964 MG.

pdGender 2.0 Pro has 140,000 records, including 80,000 with fuzzy logic, and is 80.6 MB. pdGender 2.0 Standard has 60,000 records, does not have fuzzy logic, and is 25.5 MB.

Product information